5th Generation District Heating and Cooling

Journal papers

Title Authors Reference Links
Temperature control of a low-temperature district heating network with Model Predictive Control and Mixed-Integer Quadratically Constrained Programming Hering, D., Cansev, M.E., Tamassia, E., Xhonneux, A., Müller, D. Energy 224, 120140, 2021.
Identification of key performance indicators and complimentary load profiles for 5th generation district energy networks Millar, M., Yu, Z., Burnside, N., Jones, G., Elrick, B. Applied Energy 291, 116672, 2021.
Temperature control in 5th generation district heating and cooling networks: An MILP-based operation optimization M. Wirtz, L. Neumaier, P. Remmen, D. Müller Applied Energy, 288, 116608, 2021.
Perspectives on fourth and fifth generation district heating Lund, H., Østergaard, P.A., Nielsen, T.B., Werner, S., Thorsen, J.E., Gudmundsson, O., Arabkoohsar, A., Mathiesen, B.V. Energy 227, 120520, 2021.
Vocabulary for the fourth generation of district heating and cooling Sulzer, M., Werner, S., Mennel, S., Wetter, M. Smart Energy 1, 100003, 2021.
Techno-economic study of an energy sharing network comprised of a data centre and multi-unit residential buildings for cold climate Murphy, A.R., Fung, A.S. Energy and Buildings 186, 261-275, 2019.
Advanced Control and Fault Detection Strategies for District Heating and Cooling Systems — A Review S. Buffa, M. H. Fouladfar, G. Franchini, I. L. Gabarre, M. A. Chicote Applied Sciences, 11, (1), 455, 2021.
Modelling of an Existing Neutral Temperature District Heating Network: Detailed and Approximate Approaches Calixto, S., Cozzini, M., Manzolini, G. Energies 14 (2), 379, 2021.
Performance prediction and evaluation on the first balanced energy networks (BEN) part I: BEN and building internal factors Y. Wang, A. Gillich, D. Liu, E.M. Saber, M. Yebiyo, R. Kang, A. Ford Energy, 221, 119797, 2021.
Optimization of low-carbon multi-energy systems with seasonal geothermal energy storage: The Anergy Grid of ETH Zurich P. Gabrielli, A. Acquilino, S. Siri, S. Bracco, G. Sansavini, M. Mazzotti Energy Conversion and Management: X, 8, 100052, 2020.
Fifth-Generation District Heating and Cooling Substations: Demand Response with Artificial Neural Network-Based Model Predictive Control S. Buffa, A. Soppelsa, M. Pipiciello, G. Henze, R. Fedrizzi Energies, 13(17), 4339, 2020.
Quantifying Demand Balancing in Bidirectional Low Temperature Networks M. Wirtz, L. Kivilip, P. Remmen, D. Müller Energy and Buildings, 224, 110245, 2020.
The reservoir network: A new network topology for district heating and cooling T. Sommer, M. Sulzer, M. Wetter, A. Sotnikov, S. Mennel, C. Stettler Energy, 199, 117418, 2020.
Evaluation of low-exergy heating and cooling systems and topology optimization for deep energy savings at the urban district level A. Allen, G. Henze, K. Baker, G. Pavlak Energy Conversion and Management, 222, 113106, 2020.
Bibliographic analysis of the recent advancements in modeling and co-simulating the fifth-generation district heating and cooling systems M. Abugabbara, S. Javed, H. Bagge, D. Johansson Energy and Buildings, 224, 110260, 2020.
5th Generation District Heating: A novel design approach based on mathematical optimization M. Wirtz, L. Kivilip, P. Remmen, D. Müller Applied Energy, 260, 114158, 2020.
Developing novel 5th generation district energy networks A. Revesz, P. Jones, C. Dunham, G. Davies, C. Marques, R. Matabuena, J. Scott, G. Maidment Energy, 201, 117389, 2020.
5th generation district heating and cooling systems: A review of existing cases in Europe S. Buffa, M. Cozzini, M. D'Antoni, M. Baratieri, R. Fedrizzi Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 104:504-522, 2019.
5th generation district heating and cooling systems as a solution for renewable urban thermal energy supply S. Boesten, W. Ivens, S. C. Dekker, H. Eijdems Advances in Geosciences, 49:129-136, 2019.
Development of a topology analysis tool for fifth-generation district heating and cooling networks J. von Rhein, G. P. Henze, N. Long, Y. Fu Energy Conversion and Management, 196:705-716, 2019.
Lowering the pressure in district heating and cooling networks by alternating the connection of the expansion vessel T. Sommer, S. Mennel, M. Sulzer Energy, 172:991-996, 2019.
Modelling development and analysis on the Balanced Energy Networks (BEN) in London W. H. Song, Y. Wang, A. Gillich, A. Ford, M. Hewitt Applied Energy, 233-234:114-125, 2019.
A System Design for Distributed Energy Generation in Low-Temperature District Heating (LTDH) Networks S.R. Jones, M. Gillott, R. Boukhanouf, G. Walker, M. Tunzi, D. Tetlow, L. Rodrigues, M. Sumner Future Cities and Environment 5 (1), 2019.
Environmental Comparison of Energy Solutions for Heating and Cooling I. Franzén, L. Nedar, M. Andersson Sustainability, 11, 7051, 2019.
A thermodynamic analysis of a novel bidirectional district heating and cooling network R. Zarin Pass, M. Wetter, M.A. Piette Energy, 144:20-30, 2018.
Bidirectional low temperature district energy systems with agent-based control: Performance comparison and operation optimization F. Bünning, M. Wetter, M. Fuchs, D. Müller Applied Energy, 209:502-515, 2018.
Optimisation of a district energy system with a low temperature network A. Prasanna, V. Dorera, N. Vetterli Energy, 137:632-648, 2017.

Other scientific publications

Title Authors Reference Links
Comparison of 4th and 5th generation district heating systems Gudmundsson, O., Dyrelund, A., Thorsen, J.E. E3S Web Conf. 246, 9004, 2021.
A topology optimization framework to facilitate adoption of advanceddistrict thermal energy systems A. Allen, G. Henze, K. Baker, G. Pavlak, N. Long, Y. Fu IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 588 022054, 2020.
Dynamic Simulation Of Bidirectional Low-Temperature Networks - A Case Study To Facilitate The Integration Of Renewable Energies T. Blacha, M. Mans, P. Remmen, D. Müller Building Simulation Conference 2019, Rome, Italy, September 2nd – 4th, 2019.
Potential and limitations of using low-temperature district heating and cooling networks for direct cooling of buildings F. Ruesch, M. Haller CISBAT 2017 International Conference, Lausanne, Switzerland, September 2nd - 8th, 2017.
District heating and cooling with low temperature networks – sketch of an optimization problem F. Ruesch, R. Evins COLEB Workshop, ETH Zürich, 6th - 7th March, 2014.
Reservoir-Niedertemperatur Netztopologie für die Vermaschung von thermischen Netzen M. Sulzer, A. Sotnikov, T. Sommer 20. Status-Seminar «Forschen für den Bau im Kontext von Energie und Umwelt», ETH Zürich, Switzerland, September 6th - 7th, 2018.
Construction and analysis of a district heating / cooling network system based on thermal bus T. Xu, J. Yan, H. Wang, X. L. Wang, T. Zhu, H. Y. Wang 2nd International Conference on Numerical Modelling in Engineering: IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2019.
Mijnwater Heerlen: Roadmap to 2040. District heating and cooling grid Parkstad Limburg. N. Brummer, J. Bongers Technical Report, Interreg HeatNet NWE project, July, 2019.
Electricity Consumption of Heat Pumps in Thermal Networks depends on Network Topology C. Stettler, T. Schluck, M. Sulzer, S. Mennel, T. Sommer Building Simulation Conference 2019, Rome, Italy, September 2nd – 4th, 2019.
Bidirectional low temperature networks in urban districts: A novel design methodology based on mathematical optimization M. Wirtz, L. Kivilip, P. Remmen, D. Müller CISBAT 2019 – International Scientific Conference, Lausanne, Switzerland, September 4th – 6th, 2019.
Published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1343, 1.
Modeling of Low Temperature Thermal Networks Using Historical Building Data from District Energy Systems R. Rogers, V. Lakhian, M. Lightstone, J. S. Cotton Proceedings of the 13th International Modelica Conference, Regensburg, Germany, March, 4th – 6th, 2019.
Optimization of low-temperature networks by new hydraulic concepts T. Sommer, A. Sotnikov, E. Sandmeier, C. Stettler, S. Mennel, M. Sulzer CISBAT 2019 – International Scientific Conference, Lausanne, Switzerland, September 4th – 6th, 2019.
Quayside Energy Systems Analysis M. Wetter, J. Hu Technical Report, March, 21st, 2019.
A roadmap to achieve 5thgeneration heat networks in the UK P. Jones, C. Dunham, C. Davidson CIBSE Technical Symposium, Sheffield, UK, 2019.
A case study of 5th generation district heating and cooling based on foundation pile heat exchangers (Vejle, Denmark) S. E. Poulsen, M. Alberdi-Pagola, K. W. Tordrup, D. Cerra, T. R. Andersen EGU 2020 Conference, March 2020.
Minewater 2.0 project in Heerlen the Netherlands: transformation of a geothermal mine water pilot project into a full scale hybrid sustainable energy infrastructure for heating and cooling R. Verhoeven, E. Willems, V. Harcouët-Menou, E. De Boever, L. Hiddes, P. Op’t Veld, E. Demollin 8th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference and Exhibition, IRES 2013.
Anergienetze in Betrieb Amstein + Walthert AG Technical Report.
Fifth generation district energy systems for low carbon cities R.-A. Suciu PhD thesis, 2019.
Distributed Heating Networks Rijad Alisic Master thesis, Lund University, 2018.

Magazine articles

Title Authors Reference Links
Wärmenetze der 5. Generation als Schlüsseltechnologie für die urbane Wärmewende? P. Remmen, T. Blacha, M. Mans, M. Wirtz, R. Streblow, D. Müller Euro Heat and Power Magazine, No. 9/2019.
District Heating and Cooling Networks Based on Decentralized Heat Pumps: Energy Efficiency and Reversibility at Affordable Costs M. Cozzini, M. D’Antoni, S. Buffa, R. Fedrizzi, F.Bava HPT MAGAZINE VOL.36 NO 2/2018.
Balanced Energy Networks provide innovative clean heating without combustion E. Thompson www.constructionnational.co.uk
Konversion der Wärmeversorgungsstrukturen D. Schüwer (Wuppertal Institut) Energiewirtschaftliche Tagesfragen 67. Jg. (2017) Heft 11.

Research projects

Project Project name Project period Website
TransUrban.NRW Transformation der netzgebundenen, urbanen Wärme- und Kälteversorgung mit intersektoralen Power-2-Heat Lösungen als Beitrag zum Strukturwandel in den Kohlerevieren NRWs. 2020 - 2025 reallabor-transurban-nrw.de
COOLGEOHEAT Fifth generation district heating in Sweden and Denmark. 2021 - 2023 coolgeoheat.eu
REWARDHeat Renewable and Waste Heat Recovery for Competitive District Heating and Cooling Networks. 2019 - 2023 cordis.europa.eu
D2GRIDS D2Grids, rolling out 5th generation district heating and cooling 2018 - 2022 nweurope.eu
LIFE4HeatRecovery Low Temperature, Urban Waste Heat into District Heating and Cooling Networks as a Clean Source of Thermal Energy. 2018 - 2022 life4heatrecovery.eu
HeatNet NWE Transition strategies for delivering low carbon district heat. 2016 - 2020 nweurope.eu
STORM The STORM project – Developed and tested an innovative District Heating & Cooling (DHC) network controller to increase the use of waste heat and renewable energy sources and boost energy efficiency at district level. 2015 - 2019 storm-dhc.eu
Flexynets Fifth generation, Low temperature, high EXergY district heating and cooling NETworkS 2015 - 2018 flexynets.eu

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Patent name Inventor Year Patent number Link
Method for controlling heat transfer between a local cooling system and a local heating system Per Rosén (E.ON Sverige) 2019 US 2019/0257540 A1
Heating system Per Rosén (E.ON Sverige) 2019 US 2019/0154271 A1
District energy distribution system Per Rosén (E.ON Sverige) 2018 EP 3 399 247 A1
District energy distribution system and method of providing mechanical work and heating heat transfer fluid of a district thermal energy circuit Per Rosén (E.ON Sverige) 2020 US 2020/0096205 A1
A district thermal energy distribution system Per Rosén (E.ON Sverige) 2018 US 2018/0259196 A1
A district energy sharing system Vaughan, William, T.; Lindquist, Erik Dean 2010 WO 2010/145040 A1
Combined heating and cooling system Per Rosén (E.ON Sverige) 2018 EP 3 267 119 A1
Heat pump network Martin Betz (Basic Holdings) 2018 US 2018/0320907 A1


Explanation of 5th Generation DHC networks (EU project FLEXYNETS)

Pilot project in Dollnstein (only available in German)

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